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Cytarabine Hydrochloride
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Cytarabine Hydrochloride

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Cytarabine hydrochloride is a white to off-white crystalline with the chemical name 1-β-D-arabinofuranosyl-4-amino-2(1H)-pyrimidinone hydrochloride. Cytarabine hydrochloride is used in chemotherapy for white blood cell cancers, especially acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The structure is shown in fig. 1.

Structure of cytarabine hydrochloride

Fig. 1 Structure of cytarabine hydrochloride

Application in the treatment of AML

  • Introduction of AML

AML is a cancer of the myeloid line of blood cells characterized by the rapid growth of abnormal cells that accumulate in the bone marrow and blood, interfering with the production of normal blood cells. General symptoms in the early stages of AML may include feeling tired, shortness of breath, easy bruising and bleeding, and an increased risk of infection. Most cases of AML arise spontaneously. However, a number of risk factors for developing AML have been identified. These risk factors include chemical exposure, ionizing radiation, and genetic risk factors[1]. Although it was incurable 50 years ago, AML is now cured in 35 to 40% of adult patients who are 60 years of age or younger. The outcome in older patients who are unable to receive intensive chemotherapy remains dismal, with a median survival of only 5 to 10 months[2].

Introduction of AML
  • Mechanism of action

Cytarabine hydrochloride is an effective drug in the treatment of AML. It can be phosphorylated into a triphophate form, and thus competes with deoxycytidine triphosphate (DCTP) for incorporation into DNA, which blocks DNA synthesis by inhibiting the function of DNA and RNA polymerases. In this way, cytarabine hydrochloride can effectively reduce the number of cancer cells.

  • Side effects

Common side effects of cytarabine hydrochloride mainly include:



Inflammation of mouth or anus



Ulceration of mouth or anus


Bone marrow suppression

Serious side effects of cytarabine hydrochloride mainly include:

Lung disease

Allergic reaction

Consciousness loss

Other side effects of cytarabine hydrochloride mainly include:



Skin ulcer

Renal impairment



Skin spot

Urinary retention

Hair loss

Chest pain



Alfa Chemistry offers high quality cytarabine hydrochloride. Please feel free to contact us for APIs or technical services.


  1. Khwaja, A., et al. Acute myeloid leukaemia. Nature Reviews. Disease Primers. 2016, 2 (1): 16010.
  2. Hartmut Döhner, M.D., et al. Acute myeloid leukaemia. The New England Journal of Medicine. 2015, 373: 1136-52.