Cytarabine hydrochloride is a white to off-white crystalline with the chemical name 1-β-D-arabinofuranosyl-4-amino-2(1H)-pyrimidinone hydrochloride. Cytarabine hydrochloride is used in chemotherapy for white blood cell cancers, especially acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The structure is shown in fig. 1.
AML is a cancer of the myeloid line of blood cells characterized by the rapid growth of abnormal cells that accumulate in the bone marrow and blood, interfering with the production of normal blood cells. General symptoms in the early stages of AML may include feeling tired, shortness of breath, easy bruising and bleeding, and an increased risk of infection. Most cases of AML arise spontaneously. However, a number of risk factors for developing AML have been identified. These risk factors include chemical exposure, ionizing radiation, and genetic risk factors. Although it was incurable 50 years ago, AML is now cured in 35 to 40% of adult patients who are 60 years of age or younger. The outcome in older patients who are unable to receive intensive chemotherapy remains dismal, with a median survival of only 5 to 10 months.
Cytarabine hydrochloride is an effective drug in the treatment of AML. It can be phosphorylated into a triphophate form, and thus competes with deoxycytidine triphosphate (DCTP) for incorporation into DNA, which blocks DNA synthesis by inhibiting the function of DNA and RNA polymerases. In this way, cytarabine hydrochloride can effectively reduce the number of cancer cells.
Common side effects of cytarabine hydrochloride mainly include:
Inflammation of mouth or anus
Ulceration of mouth or anus
Bone marrow suppression
Serious side effects of cytarabine hydrochloride mainly include:
Other side effects of cytarabine hydrochloride mainly include:
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